Hundreds of research studies are being carried out all over the globe to combat the Coronavirus and about 27 COVID-19 vaccines are in various phases of clinical trials.
Companies in the US, UK and Germany among others are actively involved in the development of the vaccine.
Oxford University has developed a COVID-19 trial vaccine using the adenovirus that causes infection in chimpanzees. When this vaccine is administered to a person, it stimulates the body to produce antibody and elicits T-cell immune responses. The vaccine (ChAdOx 1) is being developed in coordination with pharma major AstraZeneca.
Chinese vaccine (Sinovac) is also based on adenovirus.
Indian vaccine maker Bharat Biotech had recently announced that it has successfully developed Covaxin, India's first vaccine candidate for COVID-19, in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and National Institute of Virology (NIV).
AIIMS Delhi administered the first dose of Covaxin to a 30-year-old male on Friday. He will be monitored for two weeks before given a second dose.
UK deal for 19 cr doses
The UK government plans to procure 12 vaccines that are into clinical trials.
As per this policy, the UK government has signed a deal for 9 crore doses of the vaccine, which is being jointly developed by BioNtech, Pfizer and Valneva. This is in addition to the deal to buy 10 crore doses of the AstraZeneca's vaccine.
A total of 10,260 people, including children, had participated in the clinical tests. In the first two phases, several Keralites, including medical professionals, had taken part.
American biotechnology company Moderna is likely to begin the third phase of the clinical trial of its vaccine on July 27.
The first results of Moderna's RNA vaccine are positive. With this, the shares of Moderna have increased by 16 per cent.
The US government plans to develop the vaccine before the presidential election in November. Local media have claimed that the vaccine will be available by October 2.
Even Russia is making claims of developing the vaccine and that it will be available for the public by August.
China's viral vector vaccine CanSino can also elicit T-cell and antibody response, similar to the Oxford vaccine. As per reports, it has been given temporary approval for use in the Chinese military.
Two vaccines with the neutralised virus are in the third phase of the trial. One of them is the Sinopharm's vaccine from Wuhan. Another Chinese vaccine CoronaVac is in the third phase of the trial in Brazil. The attempt is to develop 10 crore doses.
Germany's BioNTech in coordination with Pfizer and Fosun Pharmaceutical is also developing a vaccine. The US will buy 10 crore doses of the vaccine which is in the third phase of clinical trials. This has caused BioNTech's shares to rose by 10 per cent.
Apart from these, Imperial College in London, Japanese company AnGes, Johnson and Johnson are also actively involved in the development of the vaccine.