The announcement landed amid speculation that Osaka, who is one of the highest-earning women athletes, according to Forbes, may have been scaling back on her professional playing career.
Her withdrawal comes a day after American seven-time Grand Slam champion Venus Williams was ruled out of the Australian Open due to injury.
It was the latest setback for the 24-year-old, who sat out the entire grasscourt season with an Achilles injury.
Venus lost to Alison Van Uytvanck and Emma Raducanu was defeated by Aliz Cornet. Osaka lost to Danielle Collins.
The young star has collaborated with Levi's to create a playful new line, Levi's x Naomi Osaka denim collection for Spring-Summer 2022.
Up against 27th seed Anisimova, four-time Grand Slam champion Osaka never looked comfortable on her least favourite surface as she struggled to control her powerful game.
Swiatek also became the first woman to win the opening three WTA 1000 tournaments in a season.
Swiatek is the first player to make back-to-back finals at Indian Wells and Miami since Victoria Azarenka won the 'Sunshine Double' in 2016.
Barty's potential fourth round matchup against Osaka had been the talk of Melbourne Park.
Osaka will next face Amanda Anisimova, a 20-year-old American who beat Olympic gold medalist Belinda Bencic 6-2, 7-5.