Indian all-rounder Washington Sundar, pace bowler Avesh Khan and opening batsman Shubman Gill have been ruled out of the five-Test series.
Suryakumar made a fine 53 in just his second ODI, while Chahar showed his all-round prowess with an unbeaten 69 to take India home in the company of Bhuvneshwar Kumar.
The controversy over Suryakumar Yadav's dismissal in the fourth T20I against England provides the cricketing establishment a golden chance to make a break from the trend of relying blindly on technology.
"There is no question how talented both the players are," said the batting maestro.
Karnataka pacer Prasidh Krishna and Baroda all-rounder Krunal Pandya too have been included in the 18-member squad for the three-match series.
Suryakumar smashed the first ball he faced in international cricket for a six.
The three have been included in the 19-member Indian T20I squad for next month's five-match series against England.
Rishabh Pant, who was dropped for the limited-overs series in Australia, has been rewarded for his consistent performances with the bat in red-ball cricket.
The non-selection, despite his prolific run in domestic cricket and the IPL, extended Suryakumar's wait for an India cap.
Two days after the Indian squads for Australia were announced, the 30-year-old smashed an unbeaten 79 in Mumbai Indians' five-wicket victory against Royal Challengers Bangalore led by India captain Virat Kohli.