Left-arm spinner Taijul Islam was pick of the Bangladesh bowlers with a match haul of 10 wickets.
England ended the series with just nine WTC points and Australia 18 points following the penalty.
Rahane has expressed his desire to take a break from cricket during August and September.
Pakistan are the only team with an unblemished record during the new WTC cycle.
Ashwin bounced back after being left out of the WTC final against Australia with a record-breaking 33rd five-wicket haul in the first Test against the West Indies.
Both sides were ruled to be two overs short of the target after time allowances were taken into consideration, with match referee Andy Pycroft imposing the sanction.
'I think Indian top order needs to look at Babar and Kane on how to play the pacers when the ball is moving around. Both of them do it so late,' Hussain said on Sky Sports.
Australia led by Cummins thumped India by 209 runs at The Oval on Sunday to clinch their maiden WTC crown.
Shubman Gill was docked an additional 15 per cent for criticising the umpire's decision to rule him out in a debatable call during the World Test Championship final.
'Over a hundred years of Test cricket and there's been less than 500 men who have played it for Australia, that in itself makes it very special to be a part of it,' the left-arm pacer told 'The Guardian'.