He steps in for regular skipper Tamim Iqbal who has been ruled out of the series after suffering a grade-one groin strain in training on Wednesday.
Besides Jadeja, left-arm medium pacer Yash Dayal was also ruled out of the series due to a lower back issue.
Pakistan rode on Shaheen Afridi's 4/22, his career-best T20I figures, to first restrict Bangladesh to 127 for eight and then chased down the target in 11 balls to spare.
Rohit was quick to acknowledge the importance of fielding in the post-match presentation ceremony.
Chasing a revised target of 151 in 16 overs after rain interruption, Bangladesh looked on course with Litton Das (60) going great guns but his exit unhinged his side who eventually finished on 145/6.
Max O'Dowd led Netherlands' reply with 52 and Tom Cooper made 32 as the Dutch, who have already crashed out, registered their first Super 12 win.
While Shakib had no hesitation in calling Suryakumar Yadav India's No. 1 batter in T20Is over the past year he believed Bangladesh will need to concentrate on each and every Indian batter.
India must beat Bangladesh and Zimbabwe to be sure of qualification.
Zimbabwe were on a high after their giant-killing act against Pakistan, but the defeat dents their chances of reaching the semifinals.
The stumps were pulled and the players left the arena, but the TV umpire ruled the last delivery a no-ball as wicketkeeper Nurul Hasan had collected the ball in front of the stumps.