The cancellation will be a blow for China's first and only Formula One driver Guanyu Zhou, who made his debut with Alfa Romeo this season and has yet to race in front of his home crowd.
The Dutchman, who wrapped up the title last month in Japan with four races to spare, was unchallenged as he led from pole position to chequered flag.
Max Verstappen led from pole position at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez, taking the chequered flag 15.186 seconds clear of Mercedes's Lewis Hamilton.
The outcome meant Red Bull's titles were safe. The team have won the 2021 and 2022 drivers' championships with Max Verstappen as well as this year's constructors' crown, their first since 2013.
The title, clinched with three races to spare, ended an eight-year streak by Mercedes who have yet to win a race this season.
A recovery tractor was on the track while the AlphaTauri driver was still lapping at speed in heavy rain and spray.
The Dutchman's closest rival Charles Leclerc was handed a five-second post-race penalty in the Japanese GP.
The Mexican triumphed in a rain-delayed race that saw Ferrari's Charles Leclerc finish second.
The race will be held at the Buddh International Circuit in New Delhi.
The Dutchman won his fifth race in a row and 11th in the season.