The win was Verstappen's eighth of the season, and first in America, but one he had to sweat for in front of a sell-out 140,000 crowd.
The 24-year-old Red Bull racer also gave the seven-time world champion, the most successful driver of all time, a single digit salute as the Mercedes accelerated away on a hot and humid Texas afternoon at Austin's Circuit of the Americas.
Red Bull's Max Verstappen finished second to take back the Formula One world championship lead.
The new internal combustion engine exceeds the Briton's allocation of three for the season, triggering the penalty.
The race, scheduled for November 21 at the floodlit Losail International Circuit, will form part of an unprecedented Middle Eastern quartet of Grands Prix on the 22-race 2021 calendar.
Seven-time world champion Hamilton is now two points clear of Verstappen with seven races remaining.
The Spaniard halted the session when he smashed head-on into the barriers at the Ascari chicane with just over half an hour remaining.
The family have kept updates to a minimum since the accident and in an upcoming Netflix documentary, set to premiere on September 15, Corinna said privacy was very important to them.
The news was entirely expected and effectively confirmed when Bottas, 32, announced on Monday his switch to the Alfa Romeo team.
The 23-year-old dominated from pole position to take the chequered flag in the first Dutch GP for 36 years, beating Mercedes' seven-time world champion Lewis Hamilton and Valtteri Bottas.