The Mexican triumphed in a rain-delayed race that saw Ferrari's Charles Leclerc finish second.
The Dutchman won his fifth race in a row and 11th in the season.
The Williams driver will miss race due to appendicitis.
The Red Bull driver has taken his Formula One world championship lead into triple figures.
The Dutchman finished 17.8 seconds ahead of his Mexican team mate Sergio Perez.
Earlier in the day, Audi announced it would be entering the sport in 2026. Audi are widely expected to join forces with Sauber.
Audi said it would announce by the end of the year which outfit it would be lining up with.
Lewis Hamilton finished second for Mercedes.
Vettel won the F1 title from 2010-13 with the Red Bull team. His last race victory came with Ferrari in 2019.
Seven times world champion Lewis Hamilton finished second.