The world No.1 pair of Liang Wei Keng and Wang dashed the Indian duo's hopes of claiming a second BWF Super 750 title.
The top seeds will face another Chinese pair in the summit clash.
H S Prannoy's campaign ended after he lost to Japan's Kodai Naraoka 9-21, 14-21 in the men's singles quarterfinal.
Prannoy, seeded eighth, will now take on third-seeded Japanese Kodai Naraoka.
The top-seeded Indian combination went down to world No. 21 Lu Ching Yao and Yang Po Han of Chinese Taipei in a 63-minute match.
Sindhu quelled a strong challenge from Indonesia's Gregoria Mariska Tunjung.
Satwik and Chirag, ranked world No. 3, downed Korea's Choi Sol Gyu and Kim Won Ho 21-18, 21-16 in the final.
Indian archers will be in action in two gold medal matches on the day.
Satwik and Chirag became the first Indian pair to enter the Asian Games gold medal match.
No shuttler from the country could advance to the second round of the tournament.